Id 574 Adequate Nutrition Principles For The Prevention Of Chronic Diseases

Lukic J
Serbia and Montenegro
Aim(s) or purpose: Fifteen years ago, diets rich in complex carbohydrates, dietary fibres and mono-unsaturated fats, and poor in saturated fats of animal origin were elaborated in the Nutrition and Diabetes Prevention. The diets were tested through their satisfactory application during many years in obese persons and patients with metabolic syndrome, pre-diabetes, diabetes. Diets were fundamentally based on Mediterranean diet for its cardioprotective properties.
Design and method: There are eight individually adjusted diets, different in caloric intake > from low/caloric for weight reduction to high-caloric for children and sportsmen. Food substitution tables were added for the replacement and combined with food. More than half of calories from fats belong to mono-unsaturated group, originating olive oil, which decreases cholesterol and blood pressure. Consumption of fish, rich in Omega-3 polyunsaturated fats, reduces triglycerides, cholesterol, decreases cholesterol and blood pressure. Abundant intake of fruits, vegetables and cereals rich in complex carbohydrates and dietary fibres contributes to reduction body weight, regulation of lipids and blood glucose and prevents arteriosclerosis and vascular complications.
Results: Meals should be variable and composed of plenty of fruits, vegetables, soups, salads, fresh herbs, garlic. Butter and margarine should be replaced with cold pressed olive oil. Low-fat cheeses band yoghurt should be consumed. Whole-wheat bread, rye bread, corn bread, durum flour pastes, integral rice, lentils, beans, full grain cereals should be consumed because they are rich in dietary fibres Mushrooms are a good source of proteins of plant origin. Consumption of red meat should be reduced, while fish and poultry should be consumed twice a week. Personal experience resulting from endocrinological practice shows that an individually adjustment to Mediterranean diet has statistically significant positive effects on body mass index, reduction of visceral obesity, insulin resistance, level of lipids in blood, LDL&HDL cholesterol ratio and blood pressure.
Conclusions: By correcting those factors, we highly contribute to prevention of cardiovascular diseases, in the first place angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, stroke and gangrene.
ID 574
Adequate nutrition principles for the prevention of chronic diseases