PS2.093Hyperprolactinaemia - clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment

Author(s): 
Jorge Freitas(1), A Alves(2)
(1) USF + Carandá (ACeS Cávado I) - Braga, Portugal
(2) USF Santo António (ACeS Cávado III) - Barcelos, Portugal
Corresponding author: Dr Jorge Freitas, USF + Carandá, ACeS Cávado I, Braga, Portugal.
E-mail: jorgefreitas87@gmail.com
Text: 
Background/Aim: Hyperprolactinaemia is a condition characterized by elevated levels of prolactin in the blood. Prolactin primary function is to increase the development of the mammary glands during pregnancy and induce the production of breast milk after birth. in women, the clinical presentation of hyperprolactinaemia is more expressive and is characterized by irregular periods/amenorrhoea and galactorrhea. Since the function of the ovaries is affected by hyperprolactinaemia, infertility, decreased libido, dyspareunia and osteoporosis are common findings. in man, due to their inhibitory action on the production of testosterone by the testis, can also cause decreased libido or sexual potency as well as infertility, which often are interpreted by the patient as inevitable consequences of age. When the cause of hyperprolactinaemia is an unidentified prolactinoma, other clinical manifestations related to tumour growth may emerge, including headache, vomiting and visual disturbances. Make a literature review on the topic 'hyperprolactinaemia' in order to better understand the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of this clinical entity.
Method: One research articles published from the last 10 years in Portuguese, English and Spanish, using MesH term 'hyperprolactinaemia'.  
Results: The treatment of hyperprolactinaemia is directed to the cause of elevated prolactin and the aim of treatment is the resolution of signs and symptoms. If prolactin does not give any clinically relevant symptoms, reduction of prolactin levels is not necessary. The treatment of prolactinomas is primarily medical and is effective in about 80% of patients. The various treatment modalities will depend on the tumour volume producer of prolactin or the cause of symptoms, ranging from clinical surveillance, surgery, radiation or drug therapy.  
Conclusions: The knowledge of this clinical entity and its various forms of presentation is of utmost importance to the family doctor in order to can establish a diagnosis and be able to follow or refer cases to the Secondary Care when needed.